There are many methodologies when it comes to selecting the right candidates for a company.

  1. Application forms

This is the most common type of selection methodology. Well, it cannot be exactly stated as a methodology but the initial step. It was as per the survey of CIPD in the year 2003 where the reports stated that more than 80% of the companies in the marker prefer the utilization of application forms for candidate approach.

It is also a true fact that for many years, most companies took the approach of application forms to be mere a sheet where a candidate’s personal details are collected and kept for official work. That form only becomes important when the potential candidate can become the employee of that company.

It can be concluded that only after the increase in employment level was the real use of application came to light. It is via this methodology that companies can make their decision if the candidate can be given a chance for an interview or not.

Now, as we are discussing about the primitive days and how these application forms were looked upon, we can conclude from the generalized concept that resumes were for other purposes. Apart from taking necessary decisions, these forms gave the companies additional detail about the candidates. These details were extremely helpful in analyzing those individuals whether they can adapt to the company or not. It can be taken as an assumption.

Well, we can call it as a sorting method where the recruiter goes through all the required specifications and see if that person can be asked for the next round for any good position in their company.

Curriculum Vitae or resume is mostly for job sectors like professional posts, managerial posts and even in public sectors. With the help of these forms, companies can easily compare at getting good employees (new) for themselves.

As we have already gone through the prospect of these forms relying more info about the candidate, this extension is no doubt an important part. Apart from the usual extracurricular activities and the grades that a candidate has earned in their academic life, these forms also give out details like experience, additional certification, and much more.

Another name of such application form is bio data. In 1990, Anderson and Shackleton Described it as a form highlighting individual information where the details are verified.

However, where there are so many positive aspects of these application forms, there are a certain number of drawbacks too. For a limited number of posts in a company, there are hundreds and thousands of application. It takes a lot of time to narrow down the number of potential candidates from the count of uncountable forms.

In case of this selection procedure, with the help of application form, a company can decide which all candidates to call for an interview. After the shortlisting of all these candidates, the next step involves in guiding to the interview process.

In the present time, availability of application forms has also become simple. Addition of technology has made the presence of application forms of huge corporations on the online medium. It is with the relevant keyword (basically the name of the company and looking for its respective application forms) that anybody can easily acquire info about the company and the vacant positions.

Things you need to consider

In the year 2000, KPMG introduced something extremely different for the new graduates. That new selection process was named as e-selection. 2 of the most important things that made this selection process worth the effort and time of both companies and the candidates were fast and smart recruitment and image of the firm. In this process, it is in digital format and later from company records, completed forms were printed out. Giving more than the required information was seen unnecessary and therefore, the final attempt was to collect only those candidate details which were extremely important for the companies to collect.

This reduced the scrutiny process. The highest time to select the potential candidates may hardly take an hour. In that hour it is possible that multiple candidates can sit together and fill up the form and also go for the next round of interview. Apart from filling up the application form, those potential employees or better said, those candidates can move on with completion of self-assessment profile of theirs.

This information of theirs can help in matching the profile requirement set by KPMG. This set benchmark is of higher importance which you will find to be applied by most of the occupational psychology companies.

It is only after the self-assessment form is complete (this takes via a digital medium), those details in totality is sent to the main company via email. After cross checking that info, the final decision is taken. Hence, beginning of the main selection process starts.

Now if you look closer, you will find that there is a considerable drop in the cost of KPMG.This fund saving by a decline in headcount (by using application form)gives an outcome of a 20% monetary decrease in the central recruitment department. This huge amount percentage drop is counted excluding the expenditure of electronic procedures and the labor to scrutiny those forms.

Here the total work is done in an electronic medium, saving both money and effort of recruiters. So, it is advisable that most companies should go this digital initial selection method rather than follow the traditional method of paper based system.

  1. Peer assessment and Self-assessment

When there is a concerned job and there area number of candidates for a single post, the interest to know more about the post is also high. In order to clarify the details, most companies opt for audio-video method or even hold informal discussions so that every detail regarding the position is clear. This type of selection method is known as realistic job preview. This terminology was given by Wanous in the year 1992.

It is with this process that candidates can themselves check if they are suitable or fit for that post or not. Now, there has been some revelation with the help of survey reports in 2003 by COPD. As per their study, it was found that it was only 2% of the companies who follow this self-assessment procedure as one of the selection progression.

There has also been a different approach with which a company can take decisions regarding any candidate. It is done via the mode of giving a certain type of work. This ascertains the fact how much a candidate has an idea about the work or has any inquisition about the task. In addition to it, that candidate can understand that he or she can take and handle the work pressure or not.

Things you need to consider

Pret à Manger- job experience

This company made a drastic change in their company by reducing the count percentage. This count percentage is related to the number of staff. The drop was to 98% from 130%. Their main consideration was on the grounds of job experience. It was only after this benchmark was cleared then the candidates were allowed to move on to the next interview session.

It was also a fact that those selected candidates have to pass through another interview session which involves working for a day. The working experience was a paid one with proper guidance from the team member already associated with that company. However, these guidance instructors were allotted to see and check if the candidates were competent enough to work in any situation. For this, those candidates are given a number of tasks to fulfill.

There were also sessions with the shop manager when the candidates were ‘working’ for the day. Now, here is an interesting working related to assessment. As the mentors may be the future colleagues of the ones who might get selected, they are the ones who will assess the working style or the grasping ability of the candidates. In this company, the vote is counted as the potent ones which come from the side of the team members. The vote of the manager is not that important than that compared to the team members.

Now, if you see the success rate of this company, after following this selection procedure, it is 50% in the current time. This has proved to be a good technique in sieving out an appropriate number of candidates fit to be included in the team and develop the commitment toward the task.

  1. Interview over telephone

In the present time, telephonic interviews are one of the best processes to interview a potential candidate. This methodology is excellent is a good alternative than the other selection methods as it does reduces the geographic barrier and takes less time to connect with the candidates.

According to a report presented in 2003 by CIPD that there are nearly 28% of the companies which use telephonic interviews as employee selection process. This ensures the fact that even huge corporations find this more on the advantageous side in comparison to individual interview that usually takes face to face.

This type of selection process is more fruitful if the companies are looking for staff, especially for contact centre or call centre. The main idea of introducing this system as per IRS in their 2002c report is getting hold of those applicants who are adept in verbal and non-verbal details. Still, it is also taken into consideration that on applicants the concentration is on the individual level rather than only on the content.

If you take the perspective regarding the job seekers, most of them prefer the format of one to one interview format rather than sitting for a telephonic interview.

Things you need to consider

Here is an instance regarding this specific selection process. There is a huge corporation which made a request to all the applicants to submit their CVs. It is based on which the company will choose the candidates for the next level- telephonic interview. To all the chosen candidates were the time and date forwarded when their interviews will take place. It was also informed that the interview might take nearly 20 to 25 minutes. The candidates were given complete freedom to share their queries.

This information was also shared that the candidates who will successfully pass from the telephonic round will be invited to attend a 1 day assessment in the company. The dates will be forwarded to those selected candidates on due time.

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Selection Methods 2

Testing

When it comes to testing procedure in the various procedures of employment, there are people who both prefer it as well as abhor it. Those people who are in favor of this procedure think that the mode of testing can be useful. This is because it gives the forecast of the candidates in case of calculating objectivity, potential accuracy (probably higher), and performance related to testing data.

The important thing that can be relied from this aspect is giving credibility when it comes to selection decision.

In case of those people who are against testing, for them, the negative aspect is the implementation of testing or inquiring with one test evidence. This is because the other important details are side tracked and only the result of the test is considered. This procedure has also aroused many questions of not being a fair means of to select an applicant for the applied job.

There are even a certain number of candidates who think that with an earnest effort and performing better at their interview can let them be in control (to quite some extent) of the decisions that a company’s recruitment panel can take.

After all these positive and negatives related to testing, there are still some contrasting notions which still enquires about the fact if they can be taken over the digital platform or not. As per the report of 2003b, IRS gave away the report that there are 85% companies who use personality test and nearly 80% companies preferring the use if ability tests. CIPD also published a report that around 45% of the companies make sure that they use both the test procedures.

IRS also gave out the details that these types of testing methodologies are in case of graduate jobs, professional, as well as works related to management section. It is only on the grounds of job performance, co-relatedness and other factors that such types of tests are conducted by the companies.

B&Q and its online testing methodology

Online testing method, especially the psychological one is basically utilized by the managers. No only on them, but this method is applicable to all those candidates who have applied for the post in shop and managerial floors. Even if this expenditure is £12,000as the cost of the system, the company is expecting to recoup this entire cost in the initial year itself. The context on the basis of which this system is introduced is focused on a competitive market (related to recruitment). If a person is interested to know about it, they can easily attain information from [www.diy.com].

After the evaluation of these tests is complete, appropriate feedback are given back. After this, the other selection process takes place. As per the statement of B&Q, they find this approach to be innovative and not favoring any biased feeling towards ant specific candidate that usually can be seen in other selection methodologies. In case there are scenarios where there are any hitches regarding online test, the alternative option, in this case, is telephonic interview.

Critical features related to the utilization of test

Reliability

When reliability is considered on a test, it explains the degree of measurement on different test types. If reliability is more towards the test, the possible weight on the individual scores can be well influenced on the positive side. Now, this is of prominent consideration related to test with higher reliability in those job sections where job validity is also high. If the latter is low, high reliability is of no use.

Validity

If we are considering about validity variation, we can see it in tests related to the psychological ones. Amongst the team members of the company, the person who is highly concerned about the prerogative, as well as the performance related to respective jobs, is the company’s personnel manager.

Talking about predictive validity, we can understand that it is used for measuring the test scores related to the performance which will take place in the future. The areas which this validity sees are:

  1. Absence rate
  2. Appraisal scores
  3. Production rate
  4. Error rate

Aside to this, there are also other types of important criteria which are fulfilled by predictive validity. In association to this validity, performance also becomes a highlighting factor. This can be expressed as a certain level that a company maintains so that an individual working in that company can perform their work in an efficient manner to attain promotion. It can be clearly stated that these types of testing prove to be a good forecaster or predictor.

Interpretation and utilization

Interpretation and utilization can be only be counted as successful if the complete process is maintained by qualified or trained testers. Every test, especially personality tests, should be analyzed and interpreted with extra care if the company wants to get accurate results. This is because if any of the aspects gets skipped, the measures that were already taken for that particular job will become futile.

Certificate of competence, that too, from the BPS (British Psychological Society) can be attained for level A and level B on occupational testing. There are certain codes related to practice that have been imposed on the tests for occupational aspects by both CIPD as well as BPS. As per their code, it is implied that utilization of these types of tests should only be for discussion process and not to be made to finalize a candidate. Feedback is expected, but not the selection procedure. This for selection is definitely prohibited by CIPD code. This is to ensure that this process in no case become a catalyst to breach the Data Protection Act, 1998.

There are 2 most essential parts that are mandatory to be checked. Those are:

  • Edition date related to the test
  • Norm tables

A good example to highlight this fact is of Ceci and Williams. In the year 2000, they warned about the relative concept about intelligence. As per their thinking, there may be changes in the norm table, even if those changes can be seen after a certain period, they advise not to rely on norm tables including the older concepts as they can give misleading info.

Different issues when these tests are used

There may be a number of issues that may arise when a company uses tests.

  • We just read about validity and performance criteria and its influence on a test In most places, you will find the relation between performance criteria and test scores to be in the form of (r). This means correlation coefficient. Performance and test scores can be said to be related when the value of (r) is 1. In case the value of ‘r’ is found to be zero, no relationship can be established between both of them.

Again relation between performance and test scores can be taken to the level of acceptance even if the value of ‘r’ is 0.4. It is via these instances that explain that we cannot expect test to the primary factor that can forecast the performance of future.

  • Those factors which we consider to be the apt criteria where the performance related to having a good job is mainly seen to be insufficient. There are possible chances when correlations between job performance and test results may seem to be mediocre.
  • One of the highly time consuming activity in the selection process is the process of validation. There are a number of procedures in the activity of validation. Some of them involve:
  1. Emotional intelligence tests
  2. Web testing and the growth related to it
  • New test types
  • Tests may have conflicting issues when it comes in front of various individuals. There are people who prefer working in a certain phase of the day while others may be well acquainted with working at any shift. Addition to this, there are also chances of partiality or discrimination on sectors like:
  • Racial bias
  • Sexual
  • Social, and on many other aspects too.
  • There are certain types of jobs which require the utilization of tests. In case there are any changes in the type of job, there automatically is a change in the test type too. In many scenarios, it has also been observed that the necessity to include a test is also removed. If you take the instance of personality tests, in here, the observation can only be made for the current circumstance. No company can guarantee to make a forecast on candidate reliability for future circumstances.
  • As a highly potent tool that most companies are using at the present time are competencies. This is basically to enhance and increase the performance of employees. However, these types of test, mainly psychological tests, can be a tough aspect that is brought to light in 1996 by Fletcher. A contradictory info was given in the year 1999 by Rogers where he stated about the compatibility about 2 Even if the statement was made, there was no proof that can support this statement.

Verification of test to be free from sexual or ethnic bias making sure that they are reasonable and fair

If during a test procedure there are discrimination’s taking place, chances are to have a result which is both unjustified and unfair. It is imperative that the results of these types of corporate tests should be analyzed without any biased mentality. Designing and tailoring of these methodologies should be made in accordance with the specifications of the job and for the candidates appearing for that particular position. It is important that there should be development of certain types of tests especially made for people with disability to encourage fair job opportunities.

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Selection Methods 3

Test types that can be used in professional sector

General intelligence tests

Another name for this test is mental ability test. The real reason to design this type of test is to analyze over all mental capacity of the applicants appearing for the interview of a job. There are a number of variations included in this type of test. Few of the elements that you may find in general intelligence tests include:

  • General information
  • Number extension
  • Arithmetic
  • Opposites
  • Similarities
  • Analogies
  • Vocabulary

If a candidate can score high in these types of mental ability tests, companies consider this as a positive point where the person has retention ability to remember important facts and having correlation capability.This also expresses the fact that the person is capable enough to take a work on their own and complete it. Nevertheless, it cannot be maintained that this process is efficient enough to validate the selection procedure for the candidate.

It is via the note made by Ceci and Williams that explains the fact to quiet an extent relying on the basis of context. So, this for sure does not prove the level of intelligence that a person may possess who appears in an interview on a specific job role. It is also a fact that practical intelligence is no doubt an important aspect when compared to the natural intelligence that an individual possesses. You can see multiple instances related to general intelligence tests in IDS.

Aptitude tests

Be it for any aptitude test or task related to performance;different people have different capacities to perform those. If you consider those attainment tests, you will find that the skills are in contrast with the actual ability if the individual who may have another set of skills. We cannot expect to have an equivalent level of balance related to a job asking for higher performance and aptitude together. Such balances are nonexistent.

There is presence of 2 types of aptitude test. It is mostly categorized into:

  1. The ones capable of measuring any particular type of aptitude or abilities
  2. The ones capable of measuring general intelligence or general mental ability

Train ability tests

These types of tests are specially designed in order to check a candidate’s ability whether he or she is efficient enough to adapt to the changing situation of the given work or get trained easily. As seen commonly, the applicant is given certain tasks and made aware what to do in a specific duration. It is via this the company sees if the applicant responds well in that given work or not.

Only after analyzing their capability and calculating the marks that they have achieved in their give work the final decision is made.

Special aptitude tests

Apart from all the tests that you have read above, there are also few other tests that come in the special category. Measurement with the help of these tests is taken for:

  1. Manual dexterity
  2. Motor ability
  • Numerical ability
  1. Verbal ability
  2. Perceptual abilities
  3. Spatial abilities

Going through the instances stated by Whetton and Smith, you can see the various special abilities test. You can find that in the section ‘Critical Reasoning Test.’

Personality tests

You will be astonished how important it is still considered when it comes to tests based on personality. Evaluation on this is no doubt high for personality test. However, it is not considered to be of prime importance when comparisons are made with aptitude tests. The sole reason that most companies do prefer aptitude towards personality as the former can be measured easily, not the later one.

Where personality is also dependent on context, there are various arguments that states changes are easily seen in personality after a certain stretch of time. So, from this, it is clearly established that issues related to personality is a tough context. This test is taken on the sectors for:

  1. Graduate jobs
  2. Professional tasks
  • Management sectors

In addition to these 3 sections, one can see these tests to be applied for developing a team which can be stated to be having higher performance.

You can find variations in theories related to both human intelligence and personality. There have been different propositions given by experts like Cattell and Eysenck, Jung and many others when they gave their description related to personality. Argument given by Robertson in the year 2001 regarding the research report of personality highlights the fact that there are different blocks on whose combination a personality is created. Those building blocks are:

  1. Directness regarding different and new experiences
  2. Conscientiousness
  3. Agreeableness
  4. Emotional stability
  5. Introversion or extroversion

There are chances that you may have a fixed perspective related to the standardized thinking of the concept of an employee who is ideal in every way.It is good in the theoretical aspect and also a good to be used for discussion purpose. However, it is not possible in existence. This is because different people have different ways to express or work. So, with such perspective, it is not possible to put a person in a single category of perfection.

There is also a limitation in case of such personal tests. Until a person is not really honest, no test can bring out the truth. In order to gain the job, a candidate can see, analyze and use his skill to blend and use the opportunity to his or her advantage.

In order to tackle the problem that arises from this test, there is an alternate option too. Ipsative* tests can tone down the issues which arise from a personality test. But being a test (approach), it will also have another set of problems too.

It isn’t very difficult to highlight the other difficulty types. In 2001, Dalen et al. did represent few facts that proved that tests could be easily manipulated so that the outcome can be brought to the favor of any preferred candidate. So this trait cannot be taken in accordance with the job performance that most companies look for.

If you see the examples regarding the personality tests in McHenry, a shocking revelation is there for you. If a candidate luckily gets a topic, he or she will use their emotional intelligence to get through the test. There are multiple sectors on the foundation of which the measurement will be made.

Those are:

  1. Comprehensive ability
  2. Empathy
  3. Emotional control
  4. Self-motivation
  5. Inspiration to others
  6. Self-awareness

Attainment tests

Until now you have been reading about aptitude skills. When it comes to an understanding about attainment skills, it focused those specialties that a candidate has or have acquired for that particular job. Again, if you are looking for any resistance as that discussed for personality tests, you will find none in this case.

In professional field, you will find many of the applicants who find giving typing test to be a blasphemy when taking about an interview. The reason for this is their confidence which they have in themselves when asked about their typing speed. It is also a fact that they are well aware of their skill beforehand which they have complete control. There may be different methodologies related to attainment tests as it is usually devised by the employers or owners.

Things you need to consider

Cases that stands for and against online testing

There hasn’t been much of the methodology related to online tests. There are mainly 3 ways in which these tests do take place.

  • Supervised

As per this, the tester is required to be from the company where the interview is kept. Only after logging in,within a specific period,and fulfilling all the requirements can be the test started.

  • Controlled

The first step in this process is to be in association with a company and only after registration with them the applicants can apply for a test. The company only permits them after the identity of the candidates is checked.

  • Uncontrolled

Registration can be made by any one over the digital medium

Points stating against online tests

  1. These tests see mim personal and cold
  2. Even if it enhances and makes the selection process a tad lot faster, validity related to it is a questionable point.
  3. As there is no surveillance, anybody who wishes to misuse it can do it with ease. If a person is giving a test sitting at home, no company can make out who exactly is sitting for its completion.
  4. There are also issues regarding personal data security and fret over the topic of confidentiality.

Points stating for online tests

  • The analysis can be made immediately
  • It can be used for both lower and higher level jobs. The emphasis is on the former option.
  • This option is cheaper than the other choices
  • This initiates a positive image of the company
  • A convenient method for applicants to sit for the test
  • Potential applicants can be retained,and the entire selection process can be put to speed
  • Online test does not depend on just analytical tests. It is via this medium a candidate can give other types of test like on video calling.
  • An applicant can get back their feedbacks fast in comparison to traditional methods

Assessment centres and techniques related to group selections

Group methodology

This is not a new technique when a company wishes to select an applicant from the rest of the candidates. This is probably one of the oldest techniques and dates back to World War II. This is no doubt a good method but works in a better way in assessment centres. If you read the description given by Plumbley, you will understand that there are certain abilities that an applicant requires to have in order to get selected via the group selection methodology. Those of importance are:

  1. Ability to think logically and clearly
  2. Excellent expression when using verbal medium
  • Able to influence other with their capability
  1. Be acquainted with others and at ease
  2. Using prior experience (if any) and applying that to resolve issues
  3. Exemplary method of recognizing role type and handle any situation methodologically

There can’t be any question on the aspect of being group selection technique to be difficult than others. However, this difficulty level can be a bit lessened with the help of guidance and guidance.

In addition to all the points above, Plumbley also highlighted 3 group task types.

  • Group problem solving

In case there is a group that has no leader to guide the team, then it is the responsibility the team to be one and resolve the issues related to their given time frame.

  • Executive or Command exercises

In the situation highlighted above, it is mandatory that all the members are aware of their responsibilities and perform those on time.

  • Groups without leaders

In this case, a team is made which comprises of 6 to 8 people where they sit and discuss about the given topic.

After going through these types, you can get an idea which all areas these selection methods are used. Most of them are for supervisory posts, graduate, and management level.

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Selection Methods 4

Assessment centres

Visiting an assessment centre will help you get the info about utilization of group selection in addition to multiple selection techniques. There are more to its addition.

  1. Psychological tests
  2. In-basket tasks
  • Presentations
  1. Other types of interview processes

In these assessment centres, it was mainly seen how the candidates utilize their competencies to achieve their given task. The goal for all the applicants is to use all the behavioral statements and design a solution for a particular problem that a company can use to remove it.

Selection Methods 5

There are various types of methodologies like the creation of matrixes that these assessment centresuse from time to time. The check and relay to the candidates how activities and required competencies can be merged. The arrangement for this is particularly simple- 2:1. Here candidates are 2 and assessor is 1. You can clearly see the activities that will take place with the help of the chart given above.

When the entire process comes to an end, the entire work is analyzed, and relevant points or grades are awarded. It is via this method the selection technique is used. In this case, face validity has a higher advantage in comparison to the predictive validates. There is inconsistency when we discuss about the latter case.

Now, these were all from the perspective of the applicants. If a company wished to improve reliability, the change must begin from the level of assessors. If there is an enhancement of their training- briefing, explanation, structural approach; the level of improvement will be huge.

With so many pros in this methodology, there are few disadvantages too. this process takes a lot of time and is relatively higher from costing side.

As per the reports presented by CIPD in the year 2003, nearly 47.5% of companies have ensured to use assessment centres in order to select potential candidates. Apart from these observational companies, there are many other types of firms too, who are using the mix and match method by adding more activities. This ensures that the applicants get a first-hand experience of the job that will be experiencing in real life.

Again there are companies who do not follow the company values of looking for specifications related to the job. Rather than that, they believe in assessing the abilities of the candidates. IDS and Woodruffe clearly explain examples focusing on this. The years associated with both of their examples are 2002 and 2000 respectively.

Portfolio or sampling the work

When a company is going through the process of sampling the work performed by a candidate, they are basically checking or assessing if that person can be flexible to training or not. Apart from that, they also try to figure out of the applicant be kept in a permanent position or not. During 1989, Kanter gave suggestions on portfolio development for professionals as well managers in order to improve employ ability.

References

This can be a type of relaying the managers regarding the judgment of individual selection using references. In this case, the applicants are required to provide the company their basic details and credential (should be valid). Measures like these are to protect the company from any legal issue and scandals. Companies make sure to continue with validation process in 2 categories:

  1. Reference related to character
  2. Factual check

Reference related to character

This is a completely separate matter than the other processes. In here, the employer (prospective) will conduct various activities and also have a face to face interview with the candidate before settling on any decision. Then is the reference provided by the ex-employer who will know better about the candidate in question. A positive statement will ensure that the ‘would be’ employer will give the applicant a chance or will prefer to select in the first place amongst the other people queuing for an interview.

Other methodologies

There are fascinating methodologies that most companies follow while choosing candidates for their company for specific few posts. Those include:

  • Astrology
  • Graphology
  • Palmistry
  • Body language
  • Phrenology
  • Physiognomy

An aspect showcased by Thatcher that in countries like Germany and Holland, nearly 10% of the companies find the utilization of graphology important. In France, you will find the companies using this very method for nearly every work.

When he made a report on the companies in UK, the study gave away results for graphology utilization in the form of:

  • Large companies – 5%
  • Average sized companies comprising of 100 to 500 employees –1%
  • Small companies comprising less than 100 employees – 9%

Fowler in 1990 also presented the same statement that in UK,most companies find the usage of graphology no doubt to be a simplest tasks in order to select the appropriate candidates. Due to this preference, there are 2 important bodies without whose acceptance no candidate can qualify to have certification on graphology. Those are:

  1. International Graphology Association
  2. British Institute of Graphology

Things you need to consider

Selection Methods 6

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Selection Methods 7

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