There is no self starting facility in Single-phase motors and thus it needs something to have the initial torque. Only with the help of rotating flux, the initial torque is possible when rotating torque is generated in the stator. One more important thing to know about this rotating flux as it can be produced only when the difference in the angle of two stationary coils is 90-degree. However, in case there is a larger phase difference between the two fluxes present in the starter, then without thinking much the resultant would be the perfect rotating flux.
The different types of Split Phase Motors are –
These all above have different features and working ability. Only after knowing about each of them anyone can easily understand that how to use them.
Split-phase Resistance-Start Induction Motor
In a motor with split-phase induction, the parallel winding are placed by an electrical angle of 90-degree in the space and thus it is less than 90-degree.
In the figure it is clear about the winding diagram. Now, some important points are as follows about a Split-phase Resistance-Start Induction Motor –
Now, what happened in the hermetically sealed motor? This is de-energized condition, and its switch is operated magnetically.
In case of there is necessity of reversing the motor at the time of rotating then it is very important to slow the motor where the starting- switches come close. It is important in starting as well as placing the winding for supply lines. The timing device is important as this first disconnects and the complete motor and then start reversing one field and the other.
There are some typical speed of the torque can be seen –
What is the value of the starting torque? This is 1.5 times to 2 times of the full-load starting torque with the ability of starting current 6 – 8 times of the full-load current.
Shortcomings and uses
The objections of the motors are –
Now, it is clear that grinders, oil burners, washing machines, air compressors are there to produce a lot of sound.
Split-phase capacitor- start induction motor
Split-phase capacitor- start induction motor is another way of splitting a single phase motor. In this, the capacitor is placed just in a series along with winding of starting auxiliary. In this way, the line voltage is prepared by current in the starting winding. Due to this winding the displacement of the phase between the two currents is prepared to be 90-degree approx. You must need to know now the circuit capacitor and vector diagram of its voltage and current. Both of these are presented in the figures and for the convenience to use the angles are rounded off. The series capacitor needs to have a lower value when phase-shift is 90 degree to maintain it in a proper way.
Only because of a larger angle between the two field currents, the magnitude of the filed currents is similar. In the figure IIS is less ill capacitor-start motor. For a proper line current, the value of starting torque in a capacitor start motor is always higher than split phase induction motor. In capacitor start the value highs up into 3-4.5 times of fully loaded torque, but in case of split phase, it is not more than twice of full loaded torque.
Use – By using this kind of motors where high starting torque is used, there are many items as a number of the pumps, air-conditioners, refrigeration unit, compressors and a high starting torque under load. Here a proper split phase motor is important to have a high starting torque.
Permanent-split Capacitor Induction Motor
What do you mean by Permanent-split Capacitor Induction Motor? Now for knowing it in a proper way, go through the following points –
So, there is a continuous duty for the capacitor and thus is designed to get the exact resultant in a proper way which is there for an oil-filled type. Its value is based on the optimum running in place of starting characteristic. So, as a result, there is very poor availability of the starting torque and it is 50 – 100 percent of rated torque.
Here are some merits of this motor as follows –
Now, it is clear that the permanent–split capacitor is bit expensive than others as capacitor start and split phase induction motor. The auxiliary winding in this situation also works just like a running winding. Thus the duty rating is continuous and very high.
Uses – The reversing motor response is very quick, and it has an excellent controlling ability of speed and along with that the capacitor motor having permanent split is used for heaters, blowers and intake as well as exhaust fans. It can also be used in unique heaters. The function is suitable in different ways and thus it is important for you to grab the best services from various.
Two-value Capacitor Induction Motor
Two-value Capacitor Induction Motor is the combination of the speed control with exact limitation and the quiet operation. These are advantageous for split capacitor for running permanently.
This can be used in air condition which is small in size. In addition, small unit where the function can take place just at 15 amp. The starting and lowering current is available over an exact or an improved factor of power is acquired over capacitor start motor running and starting for a compressor with a proper fixed load.
Shaded-pole Induction Motor
Being an induction motor, its one of the cheapest and simplest of all manufactured motors. The poly phase induction motor and the squirrel-cage receive almost same amount of power.But, in case of the former, the motor revolves perfectly and so has a synchronous speed in the core. In case of the later, it shifts. The tgorque created is non constant as the revolving field has no true value.
In every laminated pole, a slot cut is present which is only one third from the edge of the pole.It is termed as the shading coil. It is placed inside the part called the pole’s shaded part. The remaining part is called the free portion. The exiting coil surrounds the entire coil.
Principle of operation
On supply of proper alternating current, the magnetic axis shifts towards the shaded part of the coil.This effect is almost similar to an actual motion of the pole. As a result, the squirrel cage also shift towards the shaded part. Here, the shifting flux is:
The uses are as follows:
Reversing shaded-pole motor
The reverse shaded pole enjoys a short circuit current due to the reversing switch. Switches 2 and 4 are is series combination, although they are not active as the arc remains open. Flux does not lag here, voltage does not act in reverse direction and the flux acts vertically downwards.
Reluctance-start Induction Motor
Here, the magnetic field shifts across the poles. There are non-uniform air-gap.When this gap increases, flux nears the phases.Low reluctance means a greater gap between current and flux and vice versa. Both the flux types are created by the same current. Both are displayed in time .And so, flux moves across ploes from a pole with larger air gap to the lower one.
Reluctance start motor.
Use – As torque is very low, its usages also are rare.