The cool water metaphor basically suggests that changes are nothing but occasional disruptions that happens in normal events. These disruptions can be handled with care, planned before and manage accordingly. In the other metaphor of White water Rapids it has been found that the change is unexpected and ongoing & managing this needs a continuous process. There is no end of the changes happening, that is this situation is not stable.
In the Lewin’s 3 step model we find that change is managed by the unfreezing of status quo, changing to new state & freezing every new behaviour.
Organizational change can be termed as alteration of individuals, structure, people, and technology. To make a change happen a catalyst is needed to make the change faster and efficient and guide others to cope up with the change.
Changing structure is the different changes in the structural components and structural designs. Changing technology means the implementation of new machineries, equipments, technologies, planning, computerization, automation and innovative ideas to make something productive. Changing people means changing the attitudes, perceptions, expectations and behaviours.
The problem with change is that people fear it. People resist to change is because they find the change is uncertain, risky, have the fear of losing personal possessions, unable to change habit and the feeling that this change is not on the organization’s interest.
Techniques which can be used to reduce such resistance include communication and education (proper communication and education on why this change is necessary), participation (make the employees involve in taking decisions and change process), support and facilitation (supporting and giving assurance to the employees about not fear the change helps them taking the change process positively), negotiation (negotiate or exchange valuable ideas and things causes reduce resistance),Co-operation and manipulation l (use of negative forces to influence) & coercion (use of direct forces and threats to make the change happen).
Shared values which comprise the culture of the organization are relatively much more stable, that makes the change difficult to happen. It is the mangers who can take the initiative to make the change happen. They are the positive role models of an organization, it is them who can set certain rule and regulations, create symbols and ideas, redesign socialization process, clarifying specific expectations, let employees participate in the whole process, selecting work, promoting changes and many more. The manager’s behaviour is responsible toward the reduction of resistance to change.
Stress is basically the adverse reactions that people have due to excessive work load, work pressure that are placed over them due to extraordinary constraints, demands and opportunities. Managers can help the employees to deal up with stress factor through different job related ideas. The factors related to job that the managers can implement includes clarification of job requirements, keep in note about the employee’s abilities, and improve organizational education and communication, redesigning jobs, planning performance programs. In case there are personal stress of employees, managers can conduct employee counselling programs, health and wellness program and give time management solutions.
To make a change happen managers needs to know about their role in the change process and promote the changes, making the organization cope up with the change & give every employees role in the change process.
What is creativity? It is the ability to think about something productive in a different way, making associations between different ideas and combining them to get something unique and productive. Innovation on the other hand helps in creativity as the both combines useful method and products are created.
Important structural variable includes abundant resource, organic structure, clear communication in between different departments, reduction of time pressure, & support. Some important cultural variable includes tolerating of the impractical, accepting ambiguity, no external controls, tolerating risk, focus on ends, tolerating conflict, giving positive feedback, open system focuses and finally being the ultimate leader. Necessary human resource variable include good job security, high commitment towards training & development & encouraging employees to become idea champions.