The steady flow energy equation is applicable for open systems that help to understand total energy flows. It is expected that mass flow through system is constant. This is also assumed that total energy found to system is equal to that of total energy output.

There are different energies that are included:

  • Internal
  • Kinetic
  • Potential
  • Heat and work


u is internal energy (J)

P is pressure (N/m2)

V is volume (m3)

C is velocity (m/s)

G is acceleration that occurs due to gravity (m/s2)

Z is height (m)

Q is heat flow (J)

W is work (J)

  • P .v is the displacement or flow energy
  • C2/2 represents kinetic energy
  • Z represents potential energy

When it comes to practical problems, the rate at which fluid transfers through machine says to be constant. This is a flow that is said to be steady flow.

The assumptions that can be understand in system analysis:

  • The flow of mass through system turns out to be constant
  • Fluid turns out to be uniform in composition
  • The interaction that occurs between system and surroundings are similar to work and heat

An open system is said to be one that comes with mass and energy which would cross the boundaries. There is a possibility of experiencing a good interchange of energy in an open system.


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