Introduction: Operations Research

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Are you confused as to how decisions are taken in case of certain huge issues? Is the analytical method just not something that you can understand? Well, given this scenario, it is very important that before taking any decision regarding any investment or any other finance related decisions, or even management of ahuge organization of men or machinery, decisions should be taken based on certain factors. This process of decision making after such huge calculations is termed as operations research.

Thus, going by generalized understanding, operations research can be stated as a particular discipline that specifically deals with application of analytical methods that are advanced in nature in order to make certain decisions that are best for any organization.

Starting off the process of operations research:

Going back to the 1940’, courtesy of coining this term goes to Trefethen and Me Closky of United Kingdom, which was primarily used in regards to allocation of resources that were scarce during the Second World War.

Given that its basic roots were stuck in the United Kingdom, this process has seen considerable usage in present times. Based on the concept of allocation of correct resources to correct places, with the world having huge management issues, this concept has gained ground in recent times.

It is due to this gain in significance; there are multiple operations research institutes that have cropped up in recent times. Some of them being:

  • (ORSA) Operations Research Society of America in 1952.
  • International Federation of Operations Society includes Development of the First Conference happened in 1951.

Also a Journal on Operations Society was released in the year 1963, known as Opsearch.

  • (ORSI) Operations Research Society of India in 1957

However, with multiplicity of options and varieties of areas where this procedure is being utilized, this Operations Research can be defined in various ways.

According to Operations Research Society of America, Operations Research is associated with allocation of extremely scarce resources by scientifically making usage of theman-machinerysystem. Given that this was method that was specifically used during the Second World War; its concern about maximizing the best out of the minimum is still evident.

As per the Operations Research Society of Great Britain, this procedure of operation system is associated with management of large associations or organizations of machinery, men, materials, as well as monetary issues associated with defense, government or even industries. In case of this method, there is a specific scientific method that is associatedwith decision making that includes certain facets within itself.

There are other factors that need to be taken into consideration which includes options of risk and chances, certain strategies that define the outcome as well as compare results against alternative decisions. The primary aim of this research fundamental is to ensure that each of the policies and actions that are taken follows a scientific pattern and hence the decision is for the betterment of that concerned organization and people associated with it.

Shorter analysis presented by various theorists:

Apart from such detailed analysis, there are shorter versions of this topic that would help you understand details associated with this subject.

  • According to H.M. Wagner, ‘Operations Research is that perfect scientific mode that can be used for taking certain important decisions associated with executive level management.
  • As per the view of T.L. Saaty, Operations Research can also be termed as a mode of providing standard and workable answers to those issues that have terrible answers when any other mode is applied in dealing with them.
  • According to idea presented by H.A. Taha, Operations Research can be termed as a scientific mode that has its base in the interdisciplinary platforms and can be used specifically for dealing with problems that are associated with placing of resources in an ideal manner.

Various areas of application of Operations Research technique:

There are multiple areas wherethis technique can be used by the concerned organizations.

  • Finance:

In this case, areas as Portfolio Analysis and Investment analysis can be taken into consideration.

  • Construction projects:

In this case, both allocation of resources, as well as scheduling of projects, are specifically dependent on this scientific technique of Operations Research.

  • Planning of facilities:

This technique can be used specifically for enhancement of facilities as searching out an ideal location for a factory that would result in less consumption of resources and provide greater output.

Also, in case of finding a warehouse, it is important that certain factors as its location from the business area, amount of security that can be provided in that area and its location in respect to suppliers. Added to it is development of Telecommunication planning, where a particular location is to be searched out where the tower can be set, and telecom lines can be placed in a correct manner.

Speaking on a general note, these require extreme precision and correct checking of placement of resources before a final decision can be taken. Hence, this system of Operations Research is just ideal for ensuring that the best is received for planning of the facilities.

Another very important area where this research system is used is planning of hospitals. The area needs to be searched out, and it also needs to be checked as to whether it is there in the vicinity of a residential area so that it comes to use.

  • Helping in organization:

This scientific process has a huge role to play in regards to recruiting suitable people for a particular position, ensuring that the individual planning is done in the correct manner as well as scheduling training programs that are suitable for each category as well as providing a personal touch to the whole scenario.

If you are wondering as to how a scientific presentation is useful it this domain, it is important to note that without a specific planning mode there would be no way in which such a huge division can be carried out in the best possible manner.

  • Manufacturing unit:

This is another area where scientific process as Operations Research is of primary importance. There are areas as controlling of inventories, scheduling of production units, mixing of products as well as associated replacement policies, which specifically require a systematic approach in dealing with these aspects.

  • Defense:

This is the best area that needs this process on a regular. For military and police forces, resources are always scant whereas the area or the concerned amount of people that is to be protected is always huge. In such a scenario, it is imperative that this method be used to allocate resources in a correct manner for utilizing their maximum potential.

  • Marketing of products:

In case of marketing, there are 2 aspects that are to be checked properly, they being: Allocation of resources for management of advertisements as well as managing the supply chain.

Since advertisement is a very important segment of marketing, it is important that in this case, the budget be such that maximum people can be reached via these adverts.

Also, it is important to have a control over the supply chain since; demand over supply could result in loss for the firm. To prevent such a scenario, it is imperative that a scientific technique be used for creating a balance between demand and supply that would result in an equilibrium situation.

  • Engineering:

Given that the primary function of an engineer is to prepare a model that is specifically based on certain allocation of resources for the betterment of people concerned, in this case as well, this scientific method should be utilized and based on this method certain decisions should be taken that is beneficial for that engineering project as well as final product that has been created. Hence, it can be said that this process has been used in multiple facets of engineering.

Given that all these areas require specific analytical decision before finalizing, this scientific process of Operations Research has truly gained ground.

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