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Considering different positive and negative signs, the work du can be defined as-

  • Angle will be acute for positive value of du
  • Angle will be obtuse for negative value of du

Thus, three cases are formed for work calculation, i.e.

  1. When force F is in the direction of dr, the value of work du can be written as + F. ds
  2. When force F is in opposite direction of dr, the value of work du can be written as – F. ds
  3. When force F is perpendicular to dr, the value of work du can be written as 0 (zero)