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16.1 Define motivation.

This is defined by the process in which an employee channelizes his or her energy and converts it into hard work to meet the goals and the mission of the company.

16.2 Compare the theories of motivation.

According to Maslow’s hierarchy every individual goes up the ladder as his needs and requirements are satisfies substantially. However, whenever a need that gets satisfies can no longer motivate any employee for the better.

A manager believing in theory X thins that only by threatening or scolding people, he will be able to make their employees work. However, a manager believing in theory Y thinks that employee is likely to work better if they are given more responsibilities and opportunities.

Intrinsic and extrinsic factors pointed out those factors that kept an employee going to perform better at work and the latter pointed out the factors which dissatisfied an employee.

Need for power, affiliation and achievement are the three needs which motivated an employee to perform well at their job.

16.3 Compare the various theories of motivation

Goal setting theory is one of the best examples of motivation. An employee is given a certain goal and if that person can complete the given goal then he or she will be rewarded according to their performance. Reinforcement theory is another such theory I which employees are motivated to do well by using positive reinforces. It is best to ignore negative behavior and try not to punish the same.

Job enlargement includes increasing the number of tasks and also increasing the frequency of the task. Equity theory mainly focuses on the inputs and outputs of the work done. Studies have shown that procedural justice has a greater impact on the employee’s satisfaction that distributive justice.

According to expectancy theory it is very clear that the individual or employee will work according to the reward he or she is expecting from the performance. An employee should have a clear idea of the performance and reward linkage. Also, the attractiveness of the reward matters a lot to the employees.

16.4 Discuss current issues in motivation

Managers should be very well aware of how he or she should cope with the motivation issues. These are motivating employees during severe economic condition, how should they manage and take care of the cross cultural challenges and how they should motivate a unique group of employees.

It is during these times when the creativity of the managers is put to test. The theories of motivation are not common to all countries. However, it is slowly being recognized all over the world. Managers face tough challenge when they are given the task to complete a challenge or when they want to motivate a unique group of employees. Several recognition programs for employees should be carried out.

Open book management can also be done when the employees know the financial statement and they know what they are taught. After gaining the complete knowledge, the managers can share the numbers with their employees so that they can have a clear visual of what they are expected to do and what will the outcome of their hard work or performance.

Chapter Sixteen Summary by Learning Outcomes 14