All the quantities with its magnitude and direction are called vectors. For example, force, velocity, acceleration of a body, etc. Vector quantities are denoted by capital letter with an arrow sign.

Force, F can be represented byF ⃗

Velocity, v can be represented byv ⃗

Acceleration, a can be represented bya ⃗

Magnitude and Direction of Vector Quantities

Magnitude of vector quantities always gives positive value where the negative sign indicates the direction.

For example,

Magnitude of 50 is 50 and for –50 is |– 50| = 50

Direction of 50 and –50 are opposite

Suppose any vector quantity is multiplied by a scalar quantity m. The magnitude of the product will be ordinary and direction of the product will be same as the direction of vector quantity.

Unit Vector:

Those vector quantities which have unit length are known as unit vectors. Mathematically, it can be written as-

Unit Vector = Force Vector/ Magnitude


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