To deal with the understanding of magnetic leakage and resistance in a transformer, it is important that these features are understood in accordance to an ideal transformer. Only when these details are clarified can students get an understanding of the other concepts associated with transformers and their functioning.
An ideal transformer is an imaginary format that shows no iron, copper or leakage flux loss at the core. So, minus any depreciation rate, input power is similar to output power resulting in an ideal scenario. Hence, any experiment or mathematical calculation is first based on this and then goes to be applied on general transformers that are used.
As per the norms of an ideal transformer, windings that are present, have no resistance or leakage flux associated with them.
Detailing of concepts:
In case of an actual transformer, there is both a primary as well as a secondary winding process associated. Courtesy to that, there is a certain amount of resistance available that causes a drop in voltage levels.
Since as per rules, magnetic flux cannot be kept confined within a standard path, hence a major chunk of this flux primarily known as mutual flux helps in linking both the windings and remains fixed at the core level. Another point is that, a small portion of this magnetic flux completes rounding that path which is present in the air that surrounds the coil. This is known as leakage flux in scientific terms.
The path that leakage flux followed is composedof the air, and therefore a certain amount of voltage is created. This voltage as per experiments is always placed in a linear mode with current generated. Hence, variation of both these quantities, current and leakage flux varies in the same manner in a linear direction.
So, when primary leakage flux varies, a change can be noticed in the primary current flow. While a secondary current flow results in variation of secondary flux generation. When a certain amount of inductance is given to primary current, there arises a simulation in the presence of primary current.
That reactance that corresponds to primary leakage inductance is known as primary leakage reactance. That reactance which corresponds to secondary leakage inductance is known as secondary leakage reactance.
It is to be noted that terminal voltage that is present should have a certain amount of component present within itself to balance the level of primary leakage. This same feature goes in for secondary leakage where it has to be balancedvia level of secondary e.m.f.
When a transformer has both magnetic flux and winding resistance that is similar to an ideal transformer, which has no leakage or resistance levels, the inductive coil is resistive and is connected in series format.
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