In real life situations, different problems arise due to the improper allotment of resources for different activities. Here, the need for transportation model arises and these special cases are called assignment models.
This model is used to allocate different resources as per the requirement. Since different types of activities are involved in adifferent type of jobs that include man, machine, material, etc. in this case, the works will be assigned as ‘n’ persons to ‘n’ types of works. With the help of this model, the problems will be minimized because of optimization of thetotal cost to meet the objectives.
For example, a firm has 10 persons for different 10 types of tasks. In this case, the manager should know how to allot the persons for a particular task so that each and every work will complete on time, hence least cost.
Similarly, if a transporter wants to know how to allocate his six trucks- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 for six different locations in the city A, B, C, D, E, F. For this, to minimize the cost of transport, proper allocation is required. This means he has to decide which truck would be allottedfor which city.
In the same manner, for salesmen, the entity should know how to optimize their performance. Suppose one entity has four salesmen and each has different ability to perform their tasks. The optimization will be attained if the allotment of these salesmen should be done as per their capabilities for four different territories. Perhaps, the agency optimizes the total time of travel.
Hence, it can be said that assignment problems are completely degenerate form of transportation problems. Here, the sum of resources available at the origin and the demand at the destinations are equal to one. This willbe occupied in each row and column of transportation problem.