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Continuity equation describes the phenomenon of fluid flow through a pipe converse mass.

Let us consider the conservation of mass in closed system. So, we get the following equation-

A1V11t = A2V22t


A1V11 = A2V22


A1 ,A2 = Cross-sectional area at inlet and outlet of the given pipe

V1 ,V2 = Velocities at inlet and outlet of pipe

1 ,2 = Densities of liquid at inlet and outlet of pipe

Consider Fig. 4.4 shows flow of an incompressible fluid,

Continuity Equation” = C

In case of incompressible fluid, we know that densities are same at inlet and outlet-


1 =2

From the above equation,

A1V1 = A2V2