Formulas of Valuation of Firms

  1. Net Operating Income Approach:


  1. S = V – B = (EBIT/ Ke) – B


S = Value of equity

V = Value of firm

B = Value of debt

Ke= Equity Capitalization Rate

  1. Ke = EBIT – I / V-B x 100
  • K = Kd [B/ V] = KE [S/ V]


Kd = Cost of Equity Capital

S   = Market value of equity

  1. Net Income Approach

V = S + B


V = Value of firm

S = Value of equity

B = Value of debt

Market value of Equity, S can be written as:

S = NI/ Ke


S  = Value of equity

NI = Earnings available for equity shareholders

Ke = Equity Capitalization Rate

K   = Overall cost of capital

It is also written as:

K = EBIT/ V x 100

NI (Net Income):

Earnings before Interest and Tax                               xx

Less : Interest                                                              xx

PBT                                                                              xx

Less : Tax                                                                     xx

PAT                                                                              xx

Less ; Pre-dividend (if any)

Amount available for equity shareholders                 xx

  1. Traditional Approach:

Traditional Approach contains some of the features of Net Income Approach and Net Operation Income Approach.

  1. Modigliani and Miller Approach:
  1. Value of Levered Firm:

Its formulae can be given by,

Vi = Vu + Bt


Vi = Value of levered firm

Vu = Value of unlevered firm

B   = Amount of debt

t    = Tax Rate

  1. Value of Unlevered Firm:

Vu = (I – t) EBT/ Ke


Vu = Profits available for equity shareholders/ Equity Capitalization Rate

Note: The term unlevered means debt content in Capital Structure whereas the term levered means no debt content in Capital Structure.


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