Chemistry is the subject which involves study of various forms of matter and interactions between different types of matter and energy involved in reactions. The smallest part of matter which cannot be further divided is known as atom. An atom is made up of three main components electrons,protons and neutrons. Protons are carriers of electrons, positive charge of negative charge and neutrons do not have any charge.
The nucleus is the centre of an atom which contains neutrons and protons.Electrons circle around the nucleus.
The electrons of one atom interact with that of another. These interactions are known as chemical reactions and are carried out on atomic level. Atoms having equal charge are stable and contain equal numbers of protons and electrons.The products formed after reactions might have positive or negative charge depending upon number of electrons and protons. They are known as ions and are known as either positive ion or negative ion.
Upon bonding together two or more atoms form molecules, which are considered as building blocks of matter. All matter is made up of molecules, which are made up of atoms. Listed below are some useful facts about atoms:
1. Atoms cannot be divided by any method, be it physically or chemically. It consists of parts, which are protons, neutrons and electrons;however division is not possible as it is chemical basic unit of matter.
2. The charge on one electron is one unit of negative charge.
3. Every proton is carries positive charge of a single unit. The charges on electron and proton are opposite in sign and equal in magnitude. As they are oppositely charged protons and electrons are fairly attracted to each other.
4. Neutrons are considered to be electrically neutral, as they do not carry any charge, and cannot be attracted by protons or electrons.
5. Neutrons and protons are almost equal in size and electron appears very small in comparison to their dimensions.
6. The mass of a proton and neutron are basically the same. A proton weighs 1840 times more than an electron.
7. The nucleus contains positive electrical charge, made up of neutrons and protons, makes up for most of the mass of an atom.
8. Electrons revolve around nucleus in orbits according to their energy levels.
9. The nucleus contributes to mass of the atom, whereas electrons make up for its volume.
10. Atomic number can be generated by analyzing a single atom, by calculating the digit of protons in it.
11. Isotopes are created on the basis of different values of neutrons in the nucleus. Oxygen is one of the elements with the most stable isotopes. If you wish to know more facts about Oxygen read through 10 Oxygen facts that will shock you.
12. Ions are created by varying electrons in an atom. Isotopes and ions both are variations of an atom as number of protons does not change.
13. All the components of an atom are bound together by powerful electrical forces. Removing a proton or a neutron is more difficult than removing just an electron from an atom. During chemical reactions atoms and their electrons are mostly involved, and protons and neutrons do not have a very active role.
What is a mole?
A mole is basically a measurement unit. A new unit is invented only when accessible units are insufficient. Chemical reactions mostly take place in units which are comparatively very small and using grams for measuring these units is fairly tough. On the other hand you cannot count number of ions, atoms and molecules as that too is fairly confusing. A mole, like all other units needs to be based on a reproducible value. One mole is assumed to be quantity of any element or compound considering it has similar number of particle as found in grams of 12.000 and the carbon-12 isotope.
According to Avogadro’s number, that is approximately equal to 6.02×1023 there are these many particles involved. A mole comprising carbon atoms is roughly equal to 6.02 x1023 atoms carbon. An infiltrator is used since it is comparatively easier to write instead of 6.02 x1023, every time the value if mentioned.This unit was created to simplify calculations and assumptions.
Now, if you find atomic structure chapter to be comparatively easier you can answer the quiz provided below to test your knowledge of the basics. Even after you have completed revision, if you are unable to grasp certain concepts you should go through notes offered by us dedicated to Chemistry.
1. From amongst the options mentioned below which two particles are attracted to each other?
a. Electrons and protons.
b. Electrons and neutrons.
c. Protons and neutrons.
d. All particles are attracted to each other.
2. According to the list given below which particles almost have the same mass and size?
a. Electrons and protons.
b. Neutrons and electrons.
c. Protons and neutrons.
d. None- they are all very different in size and mass.
3. According to the options given below, the atomic theory states that the electrons are found in:
a. Either in or around the nucleus, as they can be found everywhere in an atom.
b. In the nucleus of the atom.
c. Outside the nucleus, crowding closing to it since, electrons attract protons.
d. Outside the nucleus, far away from it making up for most of the volume of the atom.
4. Keeping the options below listed in mind, state which are the three components into which an atom is divided:
a. Protium, deuterium, and tritium.
b. Protons, neutrinos and ions.
c. Protons, neutrons and electrons.
d. Protons, neutrons and ions.
5. The nucleus of every atom contains:
b. Protons and neutrons.
d. Electrons, neutrons and protons.
6. From the options below, you produce a different ¬¬¬¬_______ when the numbers of electrons in atoms are changed?
a. Atomic mass.
7. From the options listed below, what is the electrical charge of a single proton?
a. Either positive or negative charge.
b. Negative charge.
c. No charge.
d. Positive charge.
8. According to the list provided below, what change occurs when the number of neutrons in an atom changes:
9. An element can be determined by the value of:
10. From the following values, determine which value of an atom is its atomic value:
a. Number of protons.
b. Number of electrons.
c. Number of neutrons.
d. Number of protons along with number of neutrons.