This is one of the most important factors in a negotiation process. The negotiation entirely depends on how much power a particular party wields and the head count. When a particular group has a greater number of people in their domain, the formality level is high. Not just that, the chances of decision coming in their favor also increases to a great extent. Thus, it can be stated that in such a setting the party holding greater power has a greater hold over negotiations.

However, if you consider smaller parties, chances of getting a biased rule are increased to a great extent. Another major problem that one may face is different stages of negotiation call for different arrangements when placed on a wider scale.

The Negotiation 5For the uninitiated, when there is a negotiation going to take place, ample amount of time and mind is invested on seating arrangement. It has been proved that a correct seating arrangement is of utmost importance when it comes to correct result of a negotiation process. During the Vietnam War, as per records, a number of times, the concerned meeting was canceled primarily due to lack of a proper seating arrangement between the concerned parties.


The first part of a negotiation is an exploration of topics. It is very important to note that when a negotiation process takes place, it is not the concerned negotiators, whose interests have to be kept in mind. Rather, it is the parties which have come forth from the negotiation process; their interests hold a lot more importance.

There is a step by step procedure to ensure that this negotiation is a success. The first point to note is what are the major points of difference between the 2 parties and what each of their specific demands are. Only when the negotiators are well aware of the problems can the integration and solving process start off, so that final solution of each of these problems can be found. If that is not the case, then at least the parties need to start negotiating and compromising process, which will make the whole idea a success.

On the part of the negotiating parties, it is of utmost importance that the ‘personal animosity’ is kept in control. Only when there is no animosity as such, can all the parties reach a common ground from where they can continue this negotiation procedure.

After the initial exploration process is completed, the next step is integrative encounter. In this case, the first point that has to be noted is mutual accommodation of ideas by negotiators.

The Negotiation 6The next formal step is bargaining and bidding process. In this case, the concerned negotiators make a set of tentative statements, and a whole lot of suggestions are made in regards to the concerned problem. Also, the style of solving problems undergoes a host of changes which is why this mutual accommodation can be taken into the backdrop of discussing of the problem and finally resulting in a somewhat conclusive answer.

According to theories of Walton and McKersie (1965), the whole idea of target and resistance points are to come in this regard.

In any negotiating team, there is a specific target point that is taken as objective of the process. This is termed as exploration phase of the concerned target achievement. Another important point to note is resistance point is reached at that stage when the whole negotiation comes off to a breaking point.

This resistance point in parties keep changing to a great extent, and therefore it is very important to note that negotiators may start off from a particular point where they just are not ready to bend before pressure, but they end up in a completely different scenario. There is a constant change of motion in taking the final decision.

Decision Making:

During this stage of bidding and bargaining process, it can be found that the negotiators do not join one party or remain tied up in one single commitment. Rather, till the end of the program, there is no firm commitment on either side.

During this phase of encounter the concerned parties reach a stage of the agreement, but there is no formal announcement of the same because the bargaining parties wish to come to a position that suits his or her needs the most.

In a particular organization, before or during this negotiation process, it is important to note that the wok has to go on a regular basis. The workers suddenly cannot choose a different management for itself to listen to, and neither can the management without prior notice get a new team of workers to complete the work. So, whatever time may be invested, they have to complete come to a certain point where they can decide on the future course of action.

Now comes the major part, where the concerned management can make certain offers for the people who are working. However, they have to be very careful that the offers that are made should not by any chance match up the resistance points of the workforce. If the workers are resisting something, the chances are high that with low offers made by the management, this whole revolution and non-cooperation mode would go a notch above.

But the management also should not make many high offers since this could spoil the whole idea of controlling the workforce and would rather give the idea that such revolutions would meet with positive effects always. A balance has to be maintained always.

The negotiation that happens in contractual terms is of more significance that those that occur on an informal basis. When an adjournment position is reached and such important declaration happens on an informal note, in most cases it is not respected and taken on serious terms. However, when it comes to an agreement between two parties who are extremely formal to reach other, the chances are high that this agreement would be respected. It is due to this reason that in case of war, a formal peace treaty is signed between two warring parties.


Once this whole negotiation process is complete, it can be found that the tension is eased to a great extent and the parties congratulate and share this news with each other. But this is one of the major mistakes that they make.

When negotiation process is over, the first thing that the concerned parties should check is what are the demands that have been fulfilled and what left out. This will give them an idea as to how to proceed in the next step.

These minor points need to be checked at the instant because it is based on this that one can get a complete idea of what the current situation is. It can be stated that a total description of all these points have to be taken and then a final list has to be immediately submitted to the concerned negotiation party.

The earlier this list will be given, the reaching of a proper agreement will be faster, and then the parties can continue with their general work process. It may so happen that reaching an agreement at a later stage may not be possible when a larger settlement is concerned.

Written Statement:

A formal statement of the discussion and final results have to be submitted on paper. This is one of the most important points that have to be taken into consideration when you are dealing with such a scenario.

The negotiators can completely rest on the demands that are made during this agreement period. The concerned parties can rest on this legal document, so that in future in case of any controversy they can rely on this paper agreement. Also, for those people who were not present as part of this group, this formal document acts as a stage for answering all their queries regarding this context.

Commitment of the parties:

No work can get a final nod until the whole agreement is formalized in real terms. Thus, there are a couple of steps that have to be followed to ensure that the terms of the agreement that has reached should finally be actualized in real terms.

Once the agreement is reached via negotiation and the formal paper comes in the hands of both the parties, the next step is convincing the concerned employees of the benefits and its other factors. For the workers, in most cases, this negotiation brings forth the good news, such as a hike in pay, and reducing work hours. So, from the base production level, agreeing to these demands is quite easy.

However, when it comes to management level, making the concerned parties agree to the demands can be quite a difficult situation, since there is a great amount of production and money that is at stake, and it is this position that ensures correct functioning of the other levels of production. Though negotiation and carrying on with this idea can be quite a nagging process, but to ensure that such plans can be given a concrete idea, what is required is a proper execution.

So the formed plans have to be made acceptable by the various strata of production and understand the challenges that are associated with these demarcated territories. So, once the agreement is reached, make sure they are executed in the best possible manner.

The Negotiation 7The Negotiation 8


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