Modern statistics deals a lot in categorical data, i.e., data belonging to certain groups. Observation and analysis of such data involves many techniques devised to obtain meaningful results. Analyses of categorical data help homework present various methods to deal with analysis of categorical data.
Categorical data take discrete values or forms that belong to a group of set values. Real life surveys, medical data, space research and academic research work – all deal with huge amounts of data, especially categorical data. Analysis of collected data needs to be well constructed to get meaningful inference and audience friendly representation.
Some examples of categorical data
- Blood groups of people: A, B, O, AB, etc.
- Degrees attained in University: MSc, D., MS
- Parties represented in the House of Commons: Labor Party, Conservative Party, Green Party, etc.
- Predicting cyclone occurrence in the east coast of the USA using data from previous 5
I went through various sources including analyses of categorical data help homework to get a hold on different methods of analyzing categorical data.
The different methods of analyses of categorical data can be seen as given below.
Represented as a table or bar-chart or pie-chart, frequency of each data value is tabulated.
- Frequency Tables
Data frequencies are depicted in a bar-chart or pie-chart for a single column of attribute data.
- Cross Tabulation
It is needed to analyses two columns of attribute data. It is a two-dimensional table representing pairs of data. Sky-chart is the preferred way to represent cross tabulation, but it can also be represented using bar-chart, pie-charts, mosaic plot or tables.
- Contingency Tables
These tables are designed to analyze frequency data given in two-way table. It represents relation between row and column data. Mosaic Plots, bar-chart or sky-chart can be used to represent contingency tables.
- Median Polish
This procedure works on a two-way table using factors of row-effect, column-effect and residual.Median calculation is the heart of this technique.
- Correspondence Analysis
It is a map created to determine relationship between row and column variables taken from a two-way data table.
- Multiple correspondence analysis
Similar to correspondence analysis, this procedure creates a three-dimensional plot. The representation is about categories of two or more variables.
- Map by State
This is widely used for population-based survey or data plotted on the territorial map and analyzed state-wise.
As I worked out on certain example data sets and employed the various analyses techniques, I could realize the usefulness of these.Dedicated sections in analyses of categorical data help homework also have multiple real life examples that make use of various techniques.
There is another way of seeing the procedures to analyze categorical data – through predictive modeling. Numerous ways are available for working with categorical data.
Use of probability measures and mean calculations on available variables is seen in Bernstein inequalities.
If independent variables in data analysis are discrete, binomial regression helps to predict the chances of occurrence or non-occurrence of the target in future conditions.
This procedure is derived from the Bernstein Inequality. Usually used as a predictive method in advanced computing, Chernoff Bound is useful for working with complex computer data.
A very popular mathematical theorem, Gauss’s inequality provides a limit to the mode of data.
Rule of succession
For prediction of success or failure of any event, the rule of succession defines a process of repletion of events which predicts the next success. I am quite intrigued by the fact that 18-century mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace used this method to predict that the sun will rise the next day provided that it rose for the last 5000 years.
This method is used to model contingency tables using both linear and logarithmic calculations. It is favorable when dependent variable is a count item.
This method is mostly used for surveys and personality tests that have limited responses.
This is usually derived from sum of squared errors. Modern cryptographic problems employ Chi-squared tests.
G-Test is also known as likelihood-ratio or maximum likelihood significance tests. It is now mainly used where Chi-square tests were used. Statistical genetics and computational linguistics make use of G-Test.
I feel that understanding of techniques for studying categorical data is adequately explained in different sections of analyses of categorical data help homework.From simple linear regression analysis to complex G-Tests, categorical data can be worked out through various techniques. Data scientists, researchers, and economists are continually working and devising new regression methods with modifications to suit their work.
Tabulation, correspondence analysis and charts accompanying the predictive models are useful tools to represent surveys and research data. You can simulate real time problems through statistical problems defined in analyses of categorical data help homework work books for practicing data analysis tricks and get a feel of the predictive models.