Engineering can be referred to a science where resources are used in an optimum manner for different usages. Different scientific principles are used for designing and developing structures as well as machines and apparatus.

Not only are engines being manufactured by engineers, but also many engineers have gone into fields associated with computer science. Thus other than two classical branches of engineering, namely military and civil engineering.

Application of knowledge learnt in classrooms is really important for different engineers. It can be said that role of a scientist is to know and that of an engineer is to do.

Engineering functions

Problem solving, is a common aspect associated with different engineering works. These problems may involve quantitative or qualitative works. Something as simple as common sense, or something as unusual as abstract mathematics can be required to solve these problems. Processes of creative synthesis or design is quite important for stringing ideas together and creating optimum solutions.

Approach to problems

Engineering problems are known to somewhat vary in scope of solving as well as complexity. There is however a general approach that can be used for solving all these problems. Firstly, analysis of a situation is done and a basic plan for problem solving is chalked out.

In line with this kind of plan, that problem gets reduced to a category based question. This question is then answered by use of deductive reasoning. Your answer is always going to get checked for accuracy. Results for simplified problems get interpreted in terms of original problem.

Major engineering functions

Research associated with engineering make use of mathematical skills as well as different scientific concepts. A research engineer, will make use of different experiment based techniques and seek out ways to make new processes happen. Development engineers, usually apply results of their research for different useful purposes. Application of a new knowledge on part of engineers, can help in development of a completely new model of an industrial machine. A new chemical process may be synthesized for developing new materials.

Construction and designs

In designing different products or structures, an engineer can select particular methods as well as materials. The choices made by him, need to satisfy different technical requirements as well as yield optimum performance. Construction engineers, are quite responsible for preparing sites as well as deciding upon procedures that would benefit people well.

Results need to be achieved not only from a technical point of view but also from an economical viewpoint. Different materials for construction needs to be utilized properly along with equipment. Requirements of customers are also supervised by customers. Since they have best knowledge about different resources.

Production and operations

A production engineer, is responsible for planning layout of factories as well as selecting equipment for completing operations. Testing and inspection of different processes is also something that engineers usually do. Operations engineer, will provide manpower as well as machines for running of a plant. Different complex operations can be completed economically with help from these engineers.

Computer science based engineering

Other than the classical branches of engineering, in today’s world, computer science, IT as well as ECE based engineers are ruling the roost. These people can now control operations all around the world by sitting in their cubicle. Different important concepts associated with computer science engineering has been provided below.

Database

Database, can be called as a collection of related data that helps in retrieval as well as insertion and deletion of data. Data can also be arranged in form of tables as well as schemes and reports with help of this kind of databases. Examples of these databases can be found in college or school data bases, where information about students, teachers as well as all other staffs are stored. New data entries can be made as well as deleted quite easily from these databases.

Help with DBMS

The software used for managing databases is known as Database Management System or DBMS. MySQL as well as Oracle, are some popular software used for managing databases. There are certain tasks performed by DBMS that helps to handle data in efficient manner. By use of data definition, creation as well as modification of definitions that organizes data in databases, is possible. By use of data update, insertion as well as modification of data inside databases is made possible. Applications make use of data retrieval quite often too. By making use of user administration, different users can be registered as well as monitored. Thus integrity of data is maintained in this manner. Data which might have got corrupted by system failure can be retrieved in this fashion.

Shift from file systems to DBMS at present

File systems usually manage files stored in hard disks. Different users can create, modify and delete files according to their wishes here. Error in system can occur due to several reasons. These reasons have been discussed here. For example, in a system, data is divided into compartments. Some of these compartments may be common for all users to access and modify whereas some may be exclusive for certain sections only. If unwanted access and accidental data modification occurs, then the system faces several issues, which have been discussed here.

Data redundancy and inconsistency

Data redundancy is said to occur, when copies of same data occur at many places. Updating a data, not only means making new entries but also deleting previous records. If this deletion does not occur, then problems in data identification will occur.

Data inconsistency will occur if data if many copies associated with same data, does not actually match with each other. For example, if different ID code is entered in two different departments, under name of the same person, then this kind of inconsistency creeps in. this inconsistency may occur owing to typing errors or improper update of data.

Different access problems

Users need to be aware of exact locations of files in order to access data. This process in itself can prove to be quite difficult and useless in nature. Therefore, data sorting is very important to conduct searches quite easily. File systems can often lead to unauthorized access of data. If a person from lower access level accidentally gain access to more access, then he can make several unauthorized changes.

If many people try accessing same data, simultaneously, then it leads to concurrency problems. This is solved by providing single access at a time. DBMS can however provide you with this kind of multiple access for better efficiency.

Theory of computation

Automata, is known as theory of computer science. It is a completely theoretical branch of computer science and combines mathematics as well. The manner in which logic associated with simple machines is combined with computation completes automata.

It actually enables different scientists to understand the manner in which machines look into problems and compute functions to solve them. Analysis of behavior associated with discreet systems, was mainly the reason why automata was developed.

Terminologies associated with automata

Automata is a term originating from automation. There are some basic terminologies associated with it that you need to know. Symbol is a basic building block of automata, and can represent any alphabet or picture. Alphabets in automata, are symbol sets which are always finite in nature.

A string can be termed as a finite sequence of symbols that can come together to form alphabets. A string is usually denoted by a ‘w’. An empty string is one where no symbols occur. A language on the other hand is a set of strings that can be chosen from alphabets. It is a subset of alphabets, may or may not be finite in nature.

Overview of data structures

Data structure is a way of organizing data in a particular fashion so that it can be used in an effective manner. The very idea here, is to lessen complexities associated with various tasks. Some really popular linear data structures are listed below for you to study and know more. Array is an example of data structure used for storing homogeneous elements. Size of an array needs to be provided before any data is stored. When data is stored in arrays, the number of variables being used for storage gets reduced.

Linked lists

Linked list is a kind of data structure where elements have separate objects. Each element or node of a linked list, has two items. These items include data and a reference to the next node. In singly linked lists, nodes will store addresses of next nodes present in lists. The last node, will have address or reference stated as null.

Double and circular linked lists

In doubly linked lists, two references are associated with each node. One reference would be pointing towards next node and the other towards the previous one. An advantage associated with this kind of data structure is that, you can move in both directions. If you wish to delete data, you do not require having explicit access to previous nodes.

In circular linked lists, all nodes are connected in form of one big circle. This linked list can be singly circular or doubly circular in nature. Any of these nodes can be used as a starting node here. Therefor circular que can be implemented quite easily in linked lists.

Use of Stack

A stack, is actually an abstract data type. It contains different elements which act towards performing two basic operations in form of push and pop. With use of push, an element is added to a collection and pop is used for removing previous elements. Both these operations are known to take place in top of stacks. Operations can be implemented by use of arrays as well as linked lists. Insertion and deletion of data, is allowed on one end of these stacks.

Queues

Queues, also known as FIFO, according to their way of operation, is an abstract data type. It actually serves as collection of different elements. There are two main functions associated with queues. By use of enqueuer, elements get added to collections. When you make use of dequeuer, the element which was added first, gets removed. Queues can also be implemented by use of arrays as well as linked lists.

Application of queue, can be seen when data gets transferred in a synchronized manner. CPU scheduling, disk scheduling are some examples of queue based tasks. By making use of circular queues, a lot of space gets saved. This especially happens in cases of implementation of arrays. If an array is empty, then the n+1th element is done at the 0th position.

Elements of computer networking

An open system is one which is connected to networks and quite ready for communication. A closed system is not connected to networks and can cannot be used of communication purposes. A computer network is formed by interconnecting different devices. These devices are usually termed as hosts. They get connected by use of many different paths and are used for sending or receiving data. Network devices are those mediums that help in maintaining communication between two devices.

Computer networking diagram

The pattern or layout using which different devices are interconnected, is known as network topology. OSI, which is the shorted form of Open Systems Communication, is reference model which determine standards for functioning of each layer. Protocols on the other hand represents a set of algorithms which determine the way of communication between two entities across a network.

Devices in a network, are interlinked and associated with each other. IP address, is referred to as network address of systems present across a particular network. Length of these IP addresses is usually in 32 bits of characters. A port also forms an important part of networks. It is a logical channel that is used for sending as well as receiving of data.

Author Bio:

Michelle Johnson has been helping students to understand complex concepts of economics in a simplified manner. Other than technical knowledge, she has experiences in other diverse sectors. She hails from the University of Harvard, and has more than 6 years of experience in the market. The fact that she has completed her MBA helps her dealing with many questions of students very easily.


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