In the universe, most of the compounds have covalent bonding with each other. For instance, compounds such as wood, sugar, proteins, oils etc which can be found in plants and animals are actually covalent compounds which exist through covalent bonding. These types of compounds are developed through the mutual sharing of electrons in outer shell between two atoms. Covalent bond is the name given to the bond which is formed in this way. The term “non-ionic compounds” is also used to refer to covalent compounds. If you are stuck with your covalent bond assignment and looking for help, you can seek for expert help.
Covalent Bond: What it is all about?
To put it in a very simple way for you, it is the name given to a chemical bond which constitutes sharing of two electrons between the atoms of two different elements, which can be between two non-metals or between a non-metal and a metal. It can be a single pair, dual pairs, three or even four pairs. A covalent bond is structured by the division of a single or multiple electrons between two atoms. For instance, there is presence of a covalent bond between oxygen and hydrogen in a water molecule. A covalent bond, on the basis of the number of the pair of electrons distributed, is categorized into single, double or triple covalent bond.
When two atoms take part in any chemical reaction, one of the atoms loses an electron while another one gains an electron in order to make their outermost orbit complete. They develop ionic bonds in this state. When they are unable to gain or lose electrons, they share two electrons. This sharing of an electron pair helps develop a covalent bond within them. This process you can grasp better:
A. By using illustrations.
B. You can watch videos online.
C. Ask for expert help.
D. Debate with your group mates.
For example, a covalent bond exists between each hydrogen atom and one atom of oxygen present in a molecule of water or H2O. There are two electrons in each covalent bond, one from an oxygen atom and one from an atom of hydrogen. The electrons are shared by both atoms.
A shared pair of electrons can arise from either the atoms or either electron in the pair. When the latter happens, coordinate or dative covalent bond is the name given to the bond. Frequently, multiple covalent bonds develop between a pair of atoms, and are referred to as multiple bonds. Such types of double or triple bonds can be noted in numerous cases.
Covalent Bond Properties: Are you aware of these amazing facts?
1. Most of the covalent compounds are liquids and gases.
2. Covalent crystals generally have lower boiling and melting points than ionic crystals. This is due to the fact that the strength of a covalent bond is not as much as an ionic bond. It is also due to the fact that atoms are attracted in a less powerful manner to each other. The force which attracts these atoms to each other is known by names like dipoles, van der wails forces etc, and this is a weaker bond.
3. Covalent crystals cannot be bended, as they are brittle and hard.
4. The majority of covalent substances are bad conductors of electricity, as charged ions or free electrons to transport the current are not available. But a few substances, such as hydrogen chloride (HCl), display polarity in aqueous solutions and act like ionic materials that let electricity pass through them along with their own decomposed states, and thus act like electrolytes.
5. In polar solvents, such as water, covalent substances are found to be insoluble. But these cannot be dissolved in carbon disulphide, benzene and other non-polar solvents as they are covalent in nature. As big molecules are large in size, they cannot be dissolved in any type of solvent.
6. Covalent crystals are made extremely interesting as they seem to lack physical sensitivity in their type of bonding. For instance, the carbon present in diamond is known to be the hardest naturally occurring substance having an extremely high melting point that equals 3280K. In comparison, tin has an extremely low melting point and is highly soft in nature. The length and energy of the bond may differ on the basis of the number of electrons which are shared. Tin, diamond, silicon carbide, germanium, rutile and silicon are some covalent crystal specimens. When more number of electrons is shared, there is an increase in bond energy and decrease in bond length existing within the atoms. When the number of electrons shared is more, the bond length between the atoms is decreased and bond energy is increased.
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Single and Double Covalent Bond: Making things simple!
Any chemical bond is formed when one or more electrons, particularly electron pairs, are shared between atoms. There are two shared electron pairs in a double covalent bond, and it is formed through the sharing of two electron pairs between two atoms. Actually, this is a combination of dual single bonds and is symbolized by using [=] which is two small lines between a pair of atoms.
In an oxygen molecule, there is existence of a double covalent bond. An oxygen atom is unable to exist by itself, due to the absence of a stable arrangement of inert gas electrons. There is no single atom in oxygen gas, and it comprises of two atoms that combine together in order to develop a molecule.
The formation of a covalent bond includes participating of opposite spin electrons and half filled orbital electrons. A covalent bond can be in two forms, the pie (Π) bond and the sigma (σ) bond. The Π bond develops from the lateral overlapping of orbital electrons and a sigma (σ) bond is created by orbital electrons. As compared to the pie bond, the sigma bond is stronger. This happens due to higher amount of lateral overlapping in the sigma (σ) bond. The sigma bond gets it directivity from the head-on overlapping.
Covalent bond is regarded as extremely rigid, and carbon compounds happen to be extremely strong due to this reason. Diamond is a very good specimen of a substance naturally existing due to covalent bond.
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